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RENAL CALCULI ( Nephrolithiasis )
Renal calculi (stones ) are commonly composed of calcium oxalates or phosphate or both. Phosphate stones tend to develop when infection is present. Uric or urates and cystic stones are less common
Certain spefic factors are known to play a role in particular varieties of stone formation, such as hyperthyroidism, congenital cystinuria, oxaluria, gout and infection of the renal tract. the reason for the formation of the common oxalate or mixed oxalate and phosphatestone is however abscure. Concentration of the urine as in hot climate , reumbency and prolonged high calcium intake are predisposing factors,
Uric acid stones form when the urine is persistently acid. many formers excricare an excessive amount of oxalate or have hypercalciuria with a normal serum calcium-factors which are likely to favour precipitation in their tibules or pevils.
The following conditions are usually associated with stone formation.
a) Climate or occupation which necessitate living or working under conditions where excessive loss of water from sweating occurs, thus causing constituents to be precipitated because of their high concentration in the diminished volume of urine excreted.
b ) Urinary infection or stagnation.
c ) Conditions leading to hyper-calcuria.
d ) Conditions causing increased secretion of uric acid e.g. gout and leukaemia.
e ) Dietary factors, such as excessive intake of milk or absorbable alkali.
1. Renal calculi may cause symptoms due to obstruction, ulceration and haemorrhage.
2. Stones in the kidneys may cause pain in the loins specialy on jolting.
3. stones in the ureter cause renal colic and if retained, produce hydronephrosis, infection of the ureteric stricture. Ascending pyelonephritis and pyelonephrosis may occur.
Prognosis ; responce to the homeopathic medicine is good.